HISTORY OF ARABICA COFFEE
Arabica coffee was first discovered in Ethiopia around 500 AD, and then distributed to tropical countries in the colonial era.
HISTORY OF COFFEE IN INDONESIA
The beginning of coffee plantation in Indonesia began in 1696 by Nicholas Witsen, the Mayor of Amsterdam, who gave order to Adrian Van Ommen, the commander of the Dutch forces in Malabar India, to carry Arabica coffee seeds into Indonesia. The first trial was conducted in Pondok Kopi area, Jakarta. Coffee grew exquisitely well, therefore the Dutch established the first coffee plantation in the Priangan area of West Java.
Coffee was cultivated in almost all regions of Java Island in 1750, then the Dutch began developing Arabica coffee plantations in Sumatra, Bali, Sulawesi and the Timor Islands.
FIRST COFFEE EXPORT
In 1711, the first export transaction of coffee was done with Dutch trading company, known as the VOC (Verininging Oogst Indies Company). The VOC monopolized the coffee trade from 1725 to 1780. Java Island was the place beside Middle East and Ethiopia where coffee was widely cultivated.
It was recorded that in 1725, Indonesia was the largest coffee exporter in the world. At that time, most of Indonesian coffee was from the Java Island.
PESTS RUINED INDONESIAN COFFEE
The fall of Javanese coffee began when coffee leaf rust struck in 1878. Every plantation in the entire Indonesia was affected by Hemileia Vasatrix, a type of coffee pest. West Java was the worst affected area. This outbreak killed all Arabica plants that grew in the low altitude. The remaining Arabica coffee was the one that grew on land with the altitude of 1,000 meters above sea level